Anna Kańciak, University of Warsaw, Poland
The ability to conduct attacks in cyberspace from any location in the world, together with a high level of anonymity for the perpetrator, underlines the global nature of this issue. Consequently, threats within cyberspace have become one of the most serious challenges for the national and economic security of countries. The immaterial character of cyberspace2 and the threats emerging from within its framework transcend borders in respect of both the subject and territorial dimension. The illegal activities conducted in cyberspace are also connected with the low, and constantly decreasing, costs of initiating and conducting attacks along with the relatively high possibility of by the attacking entity remaining anonymous.3 Cyber-security strategies are the response of the European Union and its Member States to the emerging threats. Developing national strategies is a relatively new trend. In such documents Member States present their national perspective in respect of cyberspace protection as well as the rules of conduct, perception of the threat, risk assessment and a strategic objective complemented by other specific objectives. These documents help national decision-makers with policy making in terms of cyberspace protection and the allocation of the resources essential for its development. Apart from cyberspace, strategies designate crucial areas of the state’s functioning as principal area of the protection that require special preventive action, i.e. critical infrastructure, economic development, national security, social development and a sense of security as a component within information-communications technologies applications.