Paweł Jastrzębski, Marcin Nowak, Police Academy in Szczytno, Poland

Zbigniew Adamiak, Piotr Holak, Izabella Babińska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Aleksandra Kaczmarek, War Studies University in Warsaw, Poland



The Taser (full name: Thomas A. Swift’s Electric Rifle) is an electric stun gun, manufactured by Taser International. Its operational range varies from 4.60 metres to 10.6 metres1 thanks to wire electrodes that remain connected to the main device. The electrodes penetrate the skin and soft tissues of the person who is the target for temporary immobilisation. The high voltage generated at low intensity causes severe pain and disruption of the nervous system, resulting in temporary total paralysis. The Taser is a device of direct coercion, whose use is permissible for widespread application in cases where conservative methods of controlling dangerous situations have been exhausted. The natural question that arises is the impact and influence of the electrically active electrodes fired on the surrounding tissues. The aim of the study was a histopathological evaluation and comparison of the effects of the cartridges from the Taser X2 and Taser X26 in terms of the local reaction on a portion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of domestic pigs fresh from a slaughterhouse. Fragments of the tissue were subjected to histological treatment and analysed using an optical microscope. There were changes in the microscopic image indicating mechanical damage to the epidermis and subcutaneous layers of the dermis due to the use of the devices researched.