Piotr Hac, War Studies University in Warsaw, Poland
The aim of this article is to present a subject not widely known in Poland: the tool known as Integrity Testing that is in place in several countries of the world (including countries in Europe). It is used to fight corruption and irregularities in the functioning of public institutions and means the possibility of anti-corruption authorities creating a false corruption situation in order to verify an officer’s behaviour. The motives for the inception of the procedure, its assumptions and the basic conditions of use are presented, and the terminology used is also explained. It shows the positive, preventive aspects of the use of tests and the need for a professional approach to these on the part of the people implementing and performing them. For the purposes of this article the tests described have been divided into four main groups and the criteria adopted have been explained. A comparative analysis of integrity testing as used by institutions in the United States, Australia, Great Britain, Romania and the Czech Republic is also carried out, specifying the key differences between these systems, including how to implement procedures and the possible use of the results. Specific figures are given concerning the number of tests carried out in some countries and their effectiveness. The assumptions used in integrity tests are also compared to current similar solutions in the anti-corruption law operating in the Polish police (Article 19 of the Police Act). Also outlined are the main problems requiring a response before any possible start of work on the implementation of integrity tests in Poland. At the same time it is noted that in the years 2007–2008 the Polish Police worked on a similar legal solution, but ultimately this was not accepted. The article is based on the author’s personal knowledge and experience resulting in a highly pragmatic picture of the issues presented.