Anna Ibek, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Poland
The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of securitization, as well as to try to demonstrate it within real phenomena related to security. The issue of securitization appeared in the work of the so-called Copenhagen school in the 1990s. The starting point is the observation that all political phenomena taking place in a country can be divided into those that are of no interest to the institutions responsible for security, those that, in the normal manner, consistent with policies and applicable law, are supported by these institutions and, finally, into those that are a vital threat to security and require extraordinary measures to eliminate them. These latter can be used after an appropriate message has been formulated and its content has been accepted. It is important that the message is presented as a speech act, since its formulation determines the recognition of a problem as a threat, that is, as a problem concerning security. Securitization is the situation in which a message is accepted by the addressee and consequently, on its basis, extraordinary security measures are employed. The central problem of securitization is not the objective characterization of a threat, but the way in which it is presented. The rhetoric of the presentation of the case involves stressing that “if we do not solve this issue, all other issues will become irrelevant”. Such situations are not exclusively associated with state bodies or their individual representatives but may also arise within the activities of other organizations, and even in private life. The concept discussed would appear to be a very attractive research tool in the field of security sciences. The article also discusses the mechanism of the introduction of securitization and gives examples of this phenomenon.