Kamil Frąckowiak, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn

The author indicates the need to develop legal standards in respect of various types of maritime pirate attacks on ships. Currently, the increased risk of violence forces some operators of commercial vessels to organize security groups to defend the ship in case of an external threat. Most of the owners recommend — when navigating waters endangered by marine violence — that additional defensive measures are taken against pirate attacks. Equipping the ship’s personnel with firearms is a sensitive issue. For this reason, the author discusses the conditions of use of firearms by security personnel in Poland. Defective training of security personnel can also be dangerous. The author points out that it is not just about the case of possible risk to the attackers, but it is also about risk to the crew members. In respect of the ongoing brutalization of pirate attacks in different parts of the world the security personnel must be provided with adequate resources so that when confronted by maritime robbers they are not defenceless