Piotr Majer, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Correspondence: Piotr Majer, Wydział Prawa i Administracji, Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski, ul. Warszawska 98, 10–702 Olsztyn, Poland. E-mail: Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Aby go zobaczyć, konieczne jest włączenie w przeglądarce obsługi JavaScript.


The author presents the second part of the article on development of internal security over the centuries. The eras discussed in the first part of the paper, which was published in the "Internal Security" issue of June 2011, were linked to the two most prevalent types of state at that time: antiquity — a slave state, and the Middle Ages – a feudal state. The state in the modern era evolved by transforming from a feudal state into the capitalist state, and in the twentieth century, some took the form of a socialist state. The changes that occurred influenced the components of internal security, and are described in minute detail. The article comprises deliberations on personal security, the security of state authorities and existence. As was pointed out, personal security was in general subject to improvement, which undoubtedly was the result of the spread of positive laws, the introduction of the principle of equality before the law, and development of institutions upholding public order and security. The factors being discussed herein were strengthened in the twentieth century by the development of civil and human rights. Security of existence increased as a result of affluence of society and improvement in social legislation, introducing a variety of guarantees associated with difficult situations. The security of state organs was provided largely by political, institutional and legal measures. However, these positive trends collapsed in countries, especially in totalitarian ones, that did not respect democratic rules. The article ends with an emphasis put on basic conclusions.